Coal; It is a black, dark gray or brown-black colored, glossy or matte solid fossil fuel and also a sedimentary rock. It consists of 50% by weight and 70% by volume of charred plant residues. Coal; It consists mainly of a combination of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and has been formed as a result of heat, pressure, and microbiological effects for a long time (millions of years) between vessels in other rock layers.


Carbonization; is the alteration process of plants. Peat, lignite, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal (coal), anthracite and graphite are formed by converting each other.


Coal; It is used in electricity production, heating, iron-steel and cement industry and other fields of industry.


Coal remains an important component of global fuel supplies, accounting for 27% of all energy used worldwide and 38% of electricity generation.


According to the studies of the World Energy Council, the world proven operable coal reserve is 891 billion tons in total.



In the report, which includes 80 countries prepared by the World Energy Council, the largest part of the world coal reserves (237.3 billion tons) is located in the USA. The USA is followed by the Russian Federation with 157 billion tons and China with 114.5 billion tons. Among other coal-rich countries; Australia (76.4 billion tons), India (60.6 billion tons), Germany (40.5 billion tons), Ukraine (33.9 billion tons), Kazakhstan (33.6 billion tons) and the Republic of South Africa (30 2 billion tons).



The largest portion of the world lignite reserves with a total size of 201 billion tons is in Germany with 40.5 billion tons. Australia is followed by 37.2 billion tons and the USA with 30.2 billion tons. China (18.6 billion tons), Serbia (13.4 billion tons), Kazakhstan (12.1 billion tons) and Russia (10.5 billion tons) are among other countries with large lignite reserves.




Together with lignite, asphaltite and hard coal, our country's total coal source is 20.66 billion tons. The lower thermal value of our hard coal varies between 6,200 - 7,250 kcal / kg. Although the thermal values ​​of our lignite source vary between 1.000 kcal / kg and 4.200 kcal / kg, approximately 90% lower heat value is below 3,000 kcal / kg.



In 2018, China ranked first with 3,474 million tons in coal production and 3,770 million tons in coal consumption.



Salable Lignite Productions in Our Country by Years 



Coal production in our country in 2018; It was realized as 83.9 million tons in total; 81.08 million tons of lignite, 1.10 million tons of hard coal and 1.75 million tons of asphaltite.



In 2018, 122.7 million tons of coal was consumed in our country.





In 2018, our country's primary energy supply was 143,666 mtep. 41,03 (Hard Coal, Lignite, Asphaltite, Coke) mtep and coal took the third place in the distribution of this supply to resources.


In 2018, a total of 113,248.6 GWs of electricity was produced from coal-based power plants, 50,260.1 GWs from domestic coal (Lignite-Asphaltite-Hard Coal) power plants, and 62,988.5 GWs from imported coal-based power plants. The share of electricity produced from coal-based power plants in 2018 was 37.16% in total electricity generation, while the share of domestic coal (lignite + hard coal asphaltite) was 16.49%.



The installed power of our country's coal-based power plant corresponds to 22.02% of the total installed power by the end of June 2020. While the ratio of installed power based on domestic coal to total installed power was 12.28%, the ratio of installed power based on imported coal to total installed power was 9.74%.



The details presented here have been prepared with the aim of informing the users of the website of our Ministry, and do not possess the characteristics of official binding documents.