Solar energy is a renewable energy source which has features such as not to pollute the environment and create harmful waste as well as ease of installation and use.
Especially being a clean energy source and working with low cost after installation increases the importance of solar energy. Today, solar energy is mostly used in developed countries as an alternative solution to alleviate the environmental problems caused by solid fuels. It is not possible to supply the energy needed for industrial, residential or individual use directly from the sun as in plants. Therefore, solar energy can be used in various ways. Many technologies have been developed to exploit solar radiation. While solar energy technologies vary widely in terms of method, material and technological level, some of them use solar energy directly as light or heat energy, while other technologies are used to obtain electricity from solar energy. Solar energy uses include direct or indirect electricity generation, hot water generation, space heating and cooling, process heat for industrial enterprises and greenhouse heating. A very small amount from solar energy in Türkiye, but it is utilized in the production of hot water.
Solar energy is the radiation energy released by the fusion process in the nucleus of the sun (conversion of hydrogen gas into helium). Outside the Earth's atmosphere, the intensity of solar energy is approximately 1370 W / m², but the amount reaching the earth varies from 0-1100 W / m2 due to the atmosphere. Even a small portion of this energy that comes to the world is many times greater than the current energy consumption of humanity. Studies on the utilization of solar energy gained momentum especially after the 1970s, solar energy systems showed a technological progress and a decrease in cost, and established itself as an environmentally clean energy source.
Our country has high solar energy potential due to its geographical location.
The energy potential that can be produced from the sun is approximately 380 billion kWh. Türkiye's gross solar energy technical potential 87.5 Million Tons of Oil Equivalent (TOE) is the size. 26.5 of this value is suitable for thermal use and 8.75 is suitable for generating electricity.
According to the Solar Energy Potential Map (SEM) of Türkiye prepared by Ministary of Energy and Natural Resources,
1. Average annual sunshine duration = 2766.5 hours / year
2. Average daily total sunshine time = 7.58 hours / day
3. Average annual radiation intensity = 1527.1 kwh / m2-year
4. Average daily radiation intensity = 4.18 kwh / m2-day
The number of days that the sun can be used at efficient rates is as high as 110 days a year. During the 10 months of the year, it can be technically and economically exploited at 63% of the country's surface area and 17% throughout the year. Solar energy potential of Türkiye and sunshine duration values by months is given in Table 1.
Table 1: Türkiye's Monthly Average Solar Potential
|Months||Monthly Total Sun ENERGY||SUNSHINE TIME|
|AVERAGE||308.0 cal/cm2-daily||3.6 kWh/m2-daily||7.2 hours /daily|
Distribution of annual solar energy potential of our country by geographical regions is shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Türkiye's Total Annual Potential of Solar Energy Distribution by Region
(hours / year)
Türkiye's region with the greatest potential to benefit from solar energy is the Southeastern Anatolia Region. This place has a strong and cold climate and receives the most radiation in winter. Altitude is high. The air condenses in the form of water vapor, rain and snow, and the atmosphere is clearer and radiation shielding is minimal. The Mediterranean Region is our second largest region. The region receiving the least radiation is the Central and Eastern Black Sea Region. This region has both a high latitude and a humid climate. Excess water vapor in the atmosphere causes the radiation to be shielded.
Nowadays, two different technologies used very different forms and areas for production electrical energy from solar energy. Though solar energy technologies vary in terms of method, material and technological level, they can be divided in two major groups:
Photovoltaic Technology: Semi-conducting materials, which are also known as photovoltaic solar energy systems, convert the sunlight directly into electricity.
Photo-emissive Solar Technologies and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP): In this system heat is obtained from solar energy, and can be used either directly or in the generation of electricity.
Date of Update: 12 July 2023
The details presented here have been prepared with the aim of informing the users of the website of our Ministry, and do not possess the characteristics of official binding documents.
Documents & Files