Climate Change and International Negotiation

Climate change is recognized as one of the biggest problems encountered on a global scale, affecting all countries regardless of their level of development and without borders. The Mediterranean basin, in which our country is located, is seen as one of the most vulnerable regions against the negative effects of climate change. Our country has already begun to be affected by the reduction of water resources and desertification caused by climate change. The fight against climate change is not only perceived as an environmental problem, but the transition to a low-carbon economy at a global level envisages a radical change in people's lives by shaping the growth strategies, energy policies, health policies, agricultural policies, food security and sustainable development goals of countries.


Starting from the late 1980s, in order to reduce the negative impact and pressure of people on the climate system, as a result of the work carried out under the leadership of the United Nations and international organizations, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (KP) in 1997 and Paris in 2015 were created. While UNFCCC, KP and PA brought legal regulations to limit anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, they also started to be more active in international emissions trading, technology and capital movements. 


With the entry into force of the UNFCCC established in the context of combating climate change, the Conference of the Parties, also known as the COP, has begun to be organized, in which the parties to the convention actively participate. The First Conference of the Parties (COP 1) was held in Berlin, Germany in 1995, COP 3 was held in Kyoto, Japan, where the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, and COP 21, where the Paris Agreement was adopted, was held in Paris, France. Negotiations on the applicability of the agreement are hosted by different countries in November every year. 


The energy sector, which is an emission-intensive and resource-intensive sector, will be one of the sectors that will be most affected by the regulations brought or to be brought by these agreements. In this context, our country is determined to use its energy resources effectively, efficiently and with the least impact on the environment, within the framework of sustainable development goals. 


By giving due importance to renewable resources in energy production, which is the main input of development, and by evaluating our mines in accordance with environmental standards, we both fulfill our responsibilities in the field of environment and ensure our energy supply security. Our Ministry closely follows the environmental studies carried out at national and international level and thus contributes to our sustainable development goals. In addition, our Ministry is responsible for calculating the emissions from Electricity and Heat Production of the National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory, which is prepared to show transparency in the fight against climate change. In addition, in order to be used in the calculation of Greenhouse Gas Emission reductions by the use of renewable energy, etc.; Turkish National Electricity Grid Emission Factor is published by our Ministry. Also, Turkish Electricity Production and Electricity Consumption Point Emission Factors, which enable corporate companies to calculate Scope 2 greenhouse gas emissions originating from electricity consumption, are published by our Ministry.


Date of Update: 09 september 2022

The details presented here have been prepared with the aim of informing the users of the website of our Ministry, and do not possess the characteristics of official binding documents.