Geothermal energy is the heat energy transported to the surface by hot water, steam and gases which are above the regional atmospheric average temperature and may contain more dissolved minerals, various salts and gases than the ground and surface waters around it.
Utilization areas of geothermal energy;
- For electricity generation; after the separation of steam and water in fluid separators produced from wells drilled in geothermal fields, electricity is generated by turbine and generator.
- As heat; geothermal resources at low temperature are evaluated in order to meet greenhouse, organic agriculture, crop drying and regional heat needs.
- At spas; minerals into low temperature geothermal waters are used useful for human health.
Turkey is Europe's 1st country in terms of installed capacity and in point of its geothermal potential is the world's 4th country. Top five countries in this area are the USA, Indonesia, Philippines, Turkey and New Zealand
Turkey Geothermal Energy Potential and Exploration Studies
Geothermal energy is clean, cheap and environmentally friendly, which is our domestic energy source. Turkey is located on an active tectonic zone as geological and geographical location and for this reason our country is rich in terms of geothermal energy resources. Our country have approximately 1.000 geothermal springs that located all over the country that have various of temperatures.
The geothermal capacity of our country is very high. 78% of these geothermal fields are situated in Western Anatolia, 9% in Central Anatolia, 7% in the Marmara Region, 5% in Eastern Anatolia and 1% in the other regions. 90% of our geothermal resources are low and medium enthalpy geothermal areas which are suitable for direct applications (heating, thermal tourism, industrial usage, etc.), while 10% are suitable for indirect applications (generation of electricity). First geothermal electricity generation held in 1975 was initiated by Kızıldere power plant with 0.5 MWe power.
In order to develop existing resources and to search for new resources/fields, drillings reached from 2.000 meters to 28.000 meters. Since 2005, with the support of our Ministry, the development of existing geothermal resources initiated and began to search for new potential areas. In 2008, in conjunction with the Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineralized Waters Law, private sector began to introduce development and investment of geothermal projects also. In conjunction with this development, the country's total geothermal heat capacity (visible amount of heat) reached to 35.500 MWt.
The potential for electricity generation in Turkey is estimated at 2000 MWe and also heat potential is 31.500 MWt.
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