Coal; It is a black, dark gray or brown-black colored, glossy or matte solid fossil fuel and also a sedimentary rock. It consists of 50% by weight and 70% by volume of charred plant residues. Coal; It consists mainly of a combination of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and has been formed as a result of heat, pressure, and microbiological effects for a long time (millions of years) between seams in other rock layers.


Carbonization; is the process of alteration of plants. Peat, lignite, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal (hard coal), anthracite and graphite are formed by turning into each other.


Coal; It is used in electricity production, heating, iron-steel and cement industry and other fields of industry.


Coal ranked second after oil with a share of 26,9% in world primary energy consumption in 2021. In the world electricity production, it ranked first with a share of 35,9%.


According to BP 2022 data, as of the end of 2020, the total anthracite and bituminous coals, sub-bituminous coals and lignite reserves in the world are 1,07 trillion tons, of which 753,6 billion tons (70%) is anthracite and bituminous coal (hard coal), 320,5 billion tons (30%) are sub-bituminous coals and lignite.


Figure 1. Distribution of World Coal Reserves by Coal Categories


The largest part of the world's anthracite and bituminous coal reserves is located in the USA with a share of 29,1% (218.94 billion tons).China with 17,9% share (135,07 billion tons), India with 14,1% (105,98 billion tons), Australia with 9,8% (73,72 billion tons), 9,5% Russia (71,72 billion tons) follows the USA. The largest part of the world's sub-bituminous coal and lignite reserves is located in the Russian Federation with a share of 28,2% (90,45 billion tons). Australia with 23,9% (76,51 billion tons), Germany with 11,2% (35,90 billion tons), USA with 9,4% (30,00 billion tons), 3,7% Indonesia (11,73 billion tons) and Türkiye with 3,4% (10,98 billion tons) follow Russia.


Figure 2. Shares of Countries in World Coal Reserves


Türkiye's total coal resource is approximately 20,84 billion tons, with 19,32 billion tons of lignite and asphaltite (92,7%) and 1,52 billion tons of hard coal (7,3%). The lower calorific value of Türkiye's Hard Coal varies between 6.200 - 7.250 kcal/kg. Although the heating values of our lignite source vary between 1.000 kcal/kg and 4.200 kcal/kg, approximately 79% of them have a lower heating value below 2.500 kcal/kg.


Figure 3. Distribution of Türkiye's Coal Resources


According to BP 2022 data, a total of 8,17 billion tons of coal was produced in the world in 2021, and China ranked first with a production of 4,1 billion tons (50,5%).


Figure 4. Major Countries in World Coal Production in 2021



Figure 5. World Coal Production by Years


According to Enerdata 2022 data, a total of 7,86 billion tons of coal was consumed in the world in 2021, and China ranked first with a consumption of 4,1 billion tons (52%).


Figure 6. Major Countries in World Coal Consumption in 2021


Figure 7. World Coal Consumption Between 1990-2021


According to the data of General Directorate Of Mining And Petroleum Affairs, Türkiye's run of mine coal production in 2022; 102,09 million tons of lignite, 1,49 million tons of asphaltite, 1,79 million tons of hard coal, totaling 105,37 million tons.


Figure 8. Türkiye's Lignite Productions by Years



Figure 9. Türkiye's Asphaltite Productions by Years



Figure 10. Türkiye's Hard Coal Productions by Years


119,8 million tons of coal (35,1 million tons of hard coal + 79,1 million tons of lignite and asphaltite + 5,6 million tons of hard coal coke) was consumed in Türkiye in 2022. The largest share in the consumption of hard coal, lignite and asphaltite belonged to thermal power plants with 60,2% and 83,5%, respectively.


Figure 11. Consumption Distribution of Türkiye's Coal Consumption by Sectors, 2022


Türkiye's average coal (hard coal, hard coal coke, lignite and asphaltite) consumption between 2018-2022 was approximately 118 million tons.


Figure 12. Türkiye's Coal Consumption Amounts by Years


In Türkiye, in 2022, a total of 112.815,81 GWh electricity was produced from coal-fired power plants, with 49.556,15 GWh from domestic coal-fired (lignite+asphaltite+hard coal) power plants and 63.259,66 GWh from imported coal-based power plants. In 2022, the share of electricity produced from coal-based power plants in total electricity production was 36,18%, while the share of domestic coal (lignite + hard coal + asphaltite) was 15,89%.


Figure 13. Share of Resources in Türkiye's Electricity Generation, 2022


As of December 2022, in Türkiye; There are a total of 67 coal-fired power plants, including 1 asphaltite, 46 lignite, 4 hard coal and 16 imported coal-fired power plants.


As of December 2022, Türkiye's coal-based power plant installed power corresponds to 21% of the total installed power. The ratio of the domestic coal-based installed power to the total installed power was 11%.


Figure 14. Türkiye's Coal Based Installed Power as of December 2022


Date of Update: 22 June 2023

The details presented here have been prepared with the aim of informing the users of the website of our Ministry, and do not possess the characteristics of official binding documents.

Belge & Dosyalar